The Bruff Project



People who traveled to California "in" a wagon train rode in the wagons only if they were very old, or very sick, or newly born. The covered wagons hauled supplies and personal belongings; the people walked.

Publication of Bruff's narratives:

Bruff 's diaries and journals were never published in Bruff's lifetime. They were published about 150 years after Bruff wrote them, by the Columbia University Press, as Gold Rush: The Journals, Drawings and Other Papers of J. Goldsborough Bruff, April 2, 1849–July 20, 1851, edited by Georgia WillisRead and Ruth Gaines; 2-volume edition in 1944, 1-volume California Centenial edition in 1949. In Gold Rush, the emphasis was on Bruff's narratives; many of Bruff's drawings were included, but with essentially no interpretation or dicussion.

Cantonment Loring:

When Bruff passed there in August of 1849, the US Army was building a temporary fort a few miles from the fur trading post named Fort Hall. The construction was never completed; the army purchased Fort Hall.

Catlin, Bodmer, Miller:

George Catlin, Karl Bodmer, and Alfed Jacob Miller were three of the early, romantic painters who visited and painted the Americal West. Calin, who first ventured into the West with the American Fur Company, focused on painting Indians in 1832-1840. Bodner accompanied Prince Maximillian of Wied-Neuwied on the prince's expeditions into the west in 1832-34. Miller was employed by the Scotsman sportsman Sir William Drummond to document an 1837 journey they took with the American Fur Company into the Rockies. Also see William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West, Alfred N. Knopf, 1966 and his earlier Army Exploration in the American West, 1803-63, Yale University Press, 1959.